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Citing The IUCN Red List

Citing The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ in general

To cite The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ in general, users are advised to follow the format suggested below, changing the dates and version numbers as appropriate.

Within the text use "...IUCN (2021)..."  or "...(IUCN 2021)...".

In a bibliography or reference list, cite The IUCN Red List as follows:

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. https://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed on [day month year].

 

Citing specific Red List or Green Status assessments published on The IUCN Red List

 

When citing specific assessments, users should note that many assessments published on The IUCN Red List are available as downloadable PDF documents with DOIs, which are permanently retrievable. The citation format for a webpage version of the assessment differs from the citation for a PDF version of the assessment.

To cite an assessment users are asked to treat it in the same way as they would a paper in an online scientific journal (The IUCN Red List is a registered online journal). The preferred citation appears at the top of the 'species' fact sheet (see the image below). This uses the Assessor(s) name(s) as the author(s), the date the assessment was published, the name of the taxon, in parentheses it should state if this is a regional Red List assessment or if it a Green Status assessment, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as the journal title, followed by the publication year as the volume number.

To cite specific assessments within text, use the assessment authors and the date the assessment was published (for these details, see the preferred citation at the top of the relevant 'species' fact sheet). For example, referring to the assessment of Vampyressa melissa, this should be cited as "Ramirez-Chaves et al. (2015)" or "(Ramirez-Chaves et al. 2015)".

Examples of citations for online versions of IUCN Red List assessments without PDFs :

  • Collette, B. and Heessen, H. 2015. Acanthocybium solandri (European assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T170331A18199865. Accessed on 09 December 2021.

  • Yokes, B., Pollard, D., Kara, M.H. and Francour, P. 2011. Stromateus fiatola (Mediterranean assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T198715A9083306. Accessed on 09 December 2021.

  • Pérez-Jiménez, J.C. 2021. Sphyrna tiburo (Green Status assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T39387A3938720213Accessed on 09 December 2021.

Examples of citations for online versions of IUCN Red List assessments with PDFs :

Examples of citations for PDF versions of IUCN Red List assessments :

Note that when citing a PDF version of an assessment, the date of download/access is not included.

 

Citing corrected assessments published on The IUCN Red List

Some taxa on The IUCN Red List have corrected assessments published to bring in minor edits that do not affect the assessment category and criteria.

Examples of citations for online versions of corrected IUCN Red List assessments :

Examples of citations for PDF versions of corrected IUCN Red List assessments :

 

Citing Spatial Data

When citing spatial data (i.e., distribution maps) published on The IUCN Red List, please refer to the citation that appears below the map image in the assessment (see the image below). To cite spatial data within text, use of the author(s) of the spatial data (in the image below, this is "IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature)"), and the date that these data were created (in the image below, this is "2019").  

Examples of full citations for spatial data: 

  • IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). 2019. Ochotona iliensis (spatial data). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. https://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed on 09 December 2021.

  • IUCN Grouper and Wrasse Specialist Group. 2018. Epinephelus striatus (spatial data). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. https://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed on 09 December 2021.

  • Wang, D. 2016. Ailuropoda melanoleuca (spatial data). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. https://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed on 09 December 2021.

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